For example, you are running 5.2 which Alfresco supports on Ubuntu 16.04. That does not mean it absolutely will not work on 17.10.1 but it certainly adds risk.
Similarly, that same page says that it supports LibreOffice 18.104.22.168. According to your alfresco-global.properties file you are using the version of LibreOffice shipped with Alfresco so that probably matches.
Did you install all of the prerequisite Ubuntu packages such as ttf-mscorefonts-installer fonts-noto fontconfig libcups2 libfontconfig1 libglu1-mesa libice6 libsm6?
The log indicates that it cannot find a supported transformer for DOCX files. Did you do any customizations or configurations with regard to transformer mimetypes?