I wanted to check how to turn debug logging on for them? Is there an environment variable I could pass in to enable that?
For the services which are based upon spring boot e.g. 'alfresco-transform-core-aio', you can set debug log level via docker compose. But you can't do that for acs/share. I am afraid that this is not an option available via docker compose for acs/share.
If you are using enterprise version, you have an option in admin console to set/enable/disable log settings (these settings are not presisted and on restart any setting done via admin console will be lost) found under support-tools.