I feel the section on upgrading is quite extensive. Is there anything specific that you are missing / not understanding? Depending on how you have installed Alfresco, the specific paths may be different, so the documentation can simply not handle all the possible combinations / constellations that may exist. If you have installed Alfresco with the default installer, the simplest way may be to just install the new version of Alfresco on the other server, and export&import the database + file system content of the old server (along with your custom configuration / extensions). Alfresco will apply any patches / changes to the database schema and data as part its startup.
Since you are using Alfresco Community Edition (and a very early release of 5.0), you may have to go through an intermediary version to make the upgrade work, i.e. from 5.0.a to 5.0.d, then 5.1.g and then the 201707 GA.