Unless you have already activated auditing and set up an audit application configuration, this kind of information will not be available for extraction. Using the default alfresco-access audit application, you would be able to log check-out / check-in. Downloads are notoriously hard to track (and in fact are not recorded by any default audit application), since you cannot technically differentiate a proper download from a simple HEAD check or a transformation to a different format - at least not on the layer that the default audit applications operate.
Password-based logins are tracked by the default alfresco-access audit application, but single sign-on logins are not. Since a customer of mine required to know which users where active in the last X months (to manage user licenses), I developed an active user auditing feature in an open-source module of mine.