If you just create the build and after you move it in tomcat at this point the proxy configuration is not important anymore because you don't use anymore webpack dev server but you can take a look at how to disable CORS in Apache :
If correctly disabled CORS you should not have any error about CORS, anyway, this is not a suggested configuration for security issues but it could be a good point to understand where are your problems.
This is for sure not an ADF issue but is more an APACHE configuration issues so I suggest you read more about this topic and concentrate your time in solving CORS problems in APACHE Tomcat.
I didn't understand if you never try to run your app on your local machine before. Anyway if you would try and you created your app with the app generator I suggest you use :
npm run start
This is because this command contains inside the configuration for use the webpack proxy :
ng serve --host 0.0.0.0 --disable-host-check --app dev --proxy-config ./demo-shell/proxy.conf.js
but again this proxy configuration is only needed in the local development and is not affecting in any way your deployed app in apache.
Can you please share the configuration of the proxy?
Where the ADF app leave?
Which URL are you calling from the ADF ?
In the picture I see the target URL is http://alfresco.mbasoft.at:8080 and it seems to be where the Alfresco instance leaves. Is it also where the ADF leave? If not, where does it leave?
The ADF leaves on my localhost.
I do not directly call URLs. I use the APIService-Methods of ADF to call the Repository of Alfresco.
On http://alfresco.mbasoft.at:8080 leaves the Alfresco instance and I want to do some requests from my ADF-App running on my localhost