Yes they are on the same port. Both are running on port 8080. I haven't used any start command, I have built it with "ng build --base-href /myUrl/" and added the dist folder to the webapp folder of my tomcat.
If you just create the build and after you move it in tomcat at this point the proxy configuration is not important anymore because you don't use anymore webpack dev server but you can take a look at how to disable CORS in Apache :
If correctly disabled CORS you should not have any error about CORS, anyway, this is not a suggested configuration for security issues but it could be a good point to understand where are your problems.
This is for sure not an ADF issue but is more an APACHE configuration issues so I suggest you read more about this topic and concentrate your time in solving CORS problems in APACHE Tomcat.
I didn't understand if you never try to run your app on your local machine before. Anyway if you would try and you created your app with the app generator I suggest you use :
npm run start
This is because this command contains inside the configuration for use the webpack proxy :
ng serve --host 0.0.0.0 --disable-host-check --app dev --proxy-config ./demo-shell/proxy.conf.js
but again this proxy configuration is only needed in the local development and is not affecting in any way your deployed app in apache.